3/4: More often than not, senior female professors, post-docs or seniors from the lab would advise you to not complain, even if you feel uncomfortable in the situation. The reason for such a compliance from other women is to ensure their own survival within these male-dominated spaces, which assume that presence of a women means sexual tensions and women being 'soft' individuals who do not know how to take things ‘lightly’. On another hand, while publishing research articles, often science journals reject the paper if it is single authored by a woman. While the proof for same is hard to get, but experiential knowledge from senior women scientists may confirm the same. Competence of women in science has often been questioned for assumed premise of women not being the ‘logical’ souls or as ‘rigorous’ as 'hard working' as their male counterparts. There is an inherent bias against women scientists and often justified through a series of patriarchal notions.
While the covert forms of harassment are just ignored, overt forms of harassment are met with even worse outcome because of the impunity these departments offer. So there are only two of ways of doing PhD in that department, either be sexually involved with the professor or be mentally harassed for not responding to sexual advances. Professors with cases running for years in courts continue to work in the departments and continue to harass the students. Continued forms of violence keep happening within the department and outside and yet no one speaks up at the risk of hampering their career.
Professors are complicit in their silence, if at all a case is filed against another professor. Women students are further reprimanded in the form of filing defamation cases, or stopping their stipend, or limiting their access to labs, and equipment etc. Science-based institutions assume that due to their 'apolitical' nature, students cannot raise voices and even if they do it would be easy to crush them and the vicious cycle continues..