Despite the fact that the federal budget for fiscal year 2018 was supposed to be fully established back in October 2017, it’s taking up until now to get a permanent legislation for it passed. And it may take longer, because there are those who feel that the budget spends too much, often on “useless items” like aid to other countries or the ACA; with (R) Rand Paul—a prominent constitutional libertarian in Congress—criticizing the Republican Party over such spending, and Donald Trump threatening to veto it. This is outrageous, because these people aren’t looking at how budgeting works pragmatically. Budgets aren’t supposed to drastically change from one fiscal year to another. An item on it is usually appropriated to be at a lesser or larger level of spending (depending on what party controls Congress and the presidency), unless permanent reform changes it via separate legislation. Example: Welfare spending was never minimized during the 1930s-70s, only appropriated to be spent less on by Rockefeller Republicans and President Dwight Eisenhower and Richard Nixon. Even Ronald Reagan—and his hard fiscally conservative New Right Republicans—couldn’t bring his anti-welfarist position to what he wanted it to be, because minimizing welfare spending wasn’t something that could be done via budgeting, but rather through permanent law change such as the bipartisan (New Democrats like Bill Clinton and New Right Republicans) PRWORA of 1996. In regards to overall spending, both Democrats and Republicans purposely deficit spend for positive fiscal effects that leads to GDP growth and dropping unemployment. When either parties complain about the debt, they don’t intend to pay it down, but rather just control deficits to prevent a broad debt-to-GDP ratio. (If debt beats GDP, interest rates and taxes go up) The “useless items” aren’t big contributors to such deficits, it’s actually just mostly SS/Medicare (2/3 of budget) and defense (around 12-16% of budget). Obviously, cutting either is unlikely and unpopular; though the 2010s Congressional Republicans have been wanting to cut SS/Medicare since more benefits come out of it than revenue comes in. Any thoughts?