Kintpuash (also known as Captain Jack to White settlers) of the Modoc people twice led his people back to their northern California homeland near Tule Lake after being forced to relocate to a reservation with their rivals, the Klamath, in southern Oregon. After their second return home, the US Army came for the small band of “renegade” Modoc. After a brief fight, Kintpuash and his small group of Modoc followers established a stronghold in the area today called Lava Beds National Monument. The army assaulted their position, but the Modoc held their ground, killing 35 soldiers and taking no casualties.
Kintpuash and others briefly met with a commission to negotiate surrender, but under pressure from those in the band who wanted war, he and a few others killed a general and a minister, and wounded two others.
The Modoc retreated back to the lava beds, now pursued by a new general and even more American troops. For a time, 53 Modoc warriors held off 3000 US Army troops.
By April 1973, they were routed and scattered, though. Kintpuash and others responsible for the deaths of the general and minister were captured and hanged by the US Army for war crimes in October 1873.
The remaining people of Kintpuash’s band were sent to Oklahoma as prisoners of war.
Kintpuash: rebel and martyr.